Choline is an essential nutrient found in foods such as eggs and fatty meats. Studies suggest that CDP-Choline supplments increase dopamine receptor densities 1)Giménez R, Raïch J, Aguilar J (November 1991).“Changes in brain striatum dopamine and acetylcholine receptors induced by chronic CDP-choline treatment of aging mice”. British Journal of Pharmacology 104(3): 575–8. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.1991.tb12471.x.PMC 1908237. PMID 1839138.. Studies also show that CDP-choline supplementation helps prevent memory impairment resulting from poor environmental conditions 2)Teather LA, Wurtman RJ (2005). “Dietary CDP-choline supplementation prevents memory impairment caused by impoverished environmental conditions in rats”. Learning & Memory 12 (1): 39–43.doi:10.1101/lm.83905. PMC 548494.PMID 15647594. and that CDP-choline can help improve focus and mental energy 3)“Supplement naturally boosts ageing brain power”. Sydney Morning Herald. 2008-02-25. Retrieved 2009-07-28., as well as helping with the treatment of attention deficit disorder. 4)Silveri MM, Dikan J, Ross AJ, et al. (November 2008). “Citicoline enhances frontal lobe bioenergetics as measured by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy”. NMR in Biomedicine 21 (10): 1066–75.doi:10.1002/nbm.1281. PMID 18816480
A group of sixity healthy adult women aged 40-60 were given CDP-Choline in a double-blind study for 28 days and were showed to have significantly better ability to produce correct responses due to improved cognitive inhibition. Their findings suggested that citicoline may improve attentional performance in middle-aged women and may ameliorate attentional deficits associated with central nervous system disorders. 5) “Improved Attentional Performance Following Citicoline Administration in Healthy Adult Women,” E. McGlade, A. Locatelli, J. Hardy, T. Kamiya, M. Morita, K. Morishita, Y. Sugimura and D. Yurgelun-Todd, Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 6, 2012, pp. 769-773. doi: 10.4236/fns.2012.36103.
Another double-blind, placebo-controlled study on old volunteers showed that citicoline therapy improved verbal memory functioning in older individuals with relatively inefficient memories and citicoline may prove effective in treating age-related cognitive decline that may be the precursor of dementia. 6)Citicoline Improves Verbal Memory in Aging Paul A. Spiers, PhD; Diane Myers, MA; Gail S. Hochanadel, PhD; Harris R. Lieberman, PhD; Richard J. Wurtman, MD Arch Neurol. 1996;53(5):441-448. doi:10.1001/archneur.1996.00550050071026.