Ingredients and Instructions

Nootroo comes in two different formulas, a Gold formula and a Silver formula. The two formulas differ in the main ingredient, which in the Gold is Noopept and in the Silver is Phenylpiracetam. Both formulas contain Cognizin brand citicoline, Suntheanine brand L-Theanine, and a Caffeine-pterostilbene co-crystal called PURENERGY.

The different formulas are alternated between daily; one day Gold, and the next day Silver. The Gold Formula uses quercetin, a natural yellow flavinoid found in onions and apples, to distinguish it from the Silver formula.

Noopept

Noopept has been shown in animal studies to be neuroprotective and to help to enhance and restore memory1)Ostrovskaya RU, Romanova GA, Barskov IV, Shanina EV, Gudasheva TA, Victorov IV, Voronina TA, Seredenin SB (1999). “Memory restoring and neuroprotective effects of the proline-containing dipeptide, GVS-111, in a photochemical stroke model”. Behavioural Pharmacology 10 (5): 549–553.doi:10.1097/00008877-199909000-00013.PMID 10780261. In studies with the Alzheimer\’s disease model, Noopept has restored spatial memory and increased immunoreactivity to amyloid buildup. 2)Ostrovskaya RU, Gruden MA, Bobkova NA, Sewell RD, Gudasheva TA, Samokhin AN, Seredinin SB, Noppe W, Sherstnev VV, Morozova-Roche LA (2007). “The nootropic and neuroprotective proline-containing dipeptide noopept restores spatial memory and increases immunoreactivity to amyloid in an Alzheimer’s disease model”. Journal of Psychopharmacology 21 (6): 611–619.doi:10.1177/0269881106071335.  17092975.Studies also show Noopept to stimulate the expression of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The hippocampus is the region of the brain responsible for the formation of memories and consolidation of short-term memory to long-term memory. BDNF is a protein that is crucial in determining the quantity of new neurons the brain can create, as well as regulating growth, survival and, differentiation of existing neurons.3)” We showed that the nootropic drug increases expression of neurotrophic factors in the hippocampus. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that neurotrophin synthesis in the hippocampus determines cognitive function, particularly in consolidation and delayed memory retrieval. Published data show that neurotrophic factor deficiency in the hippocampus is observed not only in advanced Alzheimer\’s disease, but also at the stage of mild cognitive impairment (predisease state). In light of this our findings suggest that Noopept holds much promise to prevent the development of Alzheimer\’s disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Moreover, therapeutic effectiveness of Noopept should be evaluated at the initial stage of Alzheimer’s disease.” http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10517-008-0297-x

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Phenylpiracetam

Phenylpiracetam is a nootropic substance that has been shown to improve cognition in persons with cognitive decline from organic causes.4)Lybzikova GN, Iaglova ZhS, Kharlamova IuS. The efficacy of phenotropil in the complex treatment of epilepsyZh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. (2008) It has also been shown to improve cognition in youth with epilepsy. In rodent trials Phenylpiracetam has been shown to improve retention latency by over 185%. 5)Zvejniece L, et alInvestigation into stereoselective pharmacological activity of phenotropilBasic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol.A single dose of phenylpiracetam has been shown to cause a “significant increase in locomotor activity” and a ‘significantly enhanced memory function in a passive avoidance response test” in rodents. 6)Zvejniece L, et alInvestigation into stereoselective pharmacological activity of phenotropilBasic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. (2011) Phenylpiracetam has also been shown to be effective in increasing physical endurance, adaptation and resistance to cold. 7)“Carphedon is a phenyl derivative of nootropil and is effective in increasing physical endurance and cold resistance, and is used for amnesia treatment.” Analyst. 1999 Nov;124(11):1559-62. PMID: 10746314.

 

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The following ingredients are found in both the silver and gold capsules.

CDP-Choline

Choline is an essential nutrient found in foods such as eggs and fatty meats. Studies suggest that CDP-Choline supplments increase dopamine receptor densities 8)Giménez R, Raïch J, Aguilar J (November 1991).“Changes in brain striatum dopamine and acetylcholine receptors induced by chronic CDP-choline treatment of aging mice”British Journal of Pharmacology 104(3): 575–8. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.1991.tb12471.x.PMC 1908237PMID 1839138.. Studies also show that CDP-choline supplementation helps prevent memory impairment resulting from poor environmental conditions 9)Teather LA, Wurtman RJ (2005). “Dietary CDP-choline supplementation prevents memory impairment caused by impoverished environmental conditions in rats”Learning & Memory 12 (1): 39–43.doi:10.1101/lm.83905PMC 548494.PMID 15647594. and that CDP-choline can help improve focus and mental energy 10)“Supplement naturally boosts ageing brain power”Sydney Morning Herald. 2008-02-25. Retrieved 2009-07-28., as well as helping with the treatment of attention deficit disorder. 11)Silveri MM, Dikan J, Ross AJ, et al. (November 2008). “Citicoline enhances frontal lobe bioenergetics as measured by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy”. NMR in Biomedicine 21 (10): 1066–75.doi:10.1002/nbm.1281PMID 18816480Phenylpiracetam and noopept cause the brain to release more acetylcholine and the limiting factor in this reaction is choline, thus CDP-Choline is important in helping to ensure a steady supply of choline for the brain.

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L-Theanine

Theanine is an amino acid found in green teas and is well known for it\’s ability to calm a person down without making them tired. 12)Kimura, Kenta; Ozeki, Makoto; Juneja, Lekh Raj; Ohira, Hideki (2007). “L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses”. Biological Psychology 74 (1): 39–45.doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2006.06.006.PMID 16930802.. Theanine has also been shown to improve cognition 13)Park, Sang-Ki; Jung, In-Chul; Lee, Won Kyung; Lee, Young Sun; Park, Hyoung Kook; Go, Hyo Jin; Kim, Kiseong; Lim, Nam Kyoo et al. (2011). “A Combination of Green Tea Extract andl-Theanine Improves Memory and Attention in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study”. Journal of Medicinal Food 14 (4): 334–43.doi:10.1089/jmf.2009.1374PMID 21303262. Theanine works best when paired with caffeine. Their synergistic relationship has been shown to boost mood and cognitive performance. 14)Park, Sang-Ki; Jung, In-Chul; Lee, Won Kyung; Lee, Young Sun; Park, Hyoung Kook; Go, Hyo Jin; Kim, Kiseong; Lim, Nam Kyoo et al. (2011). “A Combination of Green Tea Extract andl-Theanine Improves Memory and Attention in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study”. Journal of Medicinal Food 14 (4): 334–43.doi:10.1089/jmf.2009.1374PMID 2130326215)Haskell, Crystal F.; Kennedy, David O.; Milne, Anthea L.; Wesnes, Keith A.; Scholey, Andrew B. (2008). “The effects of l-theanine, caffeine and their combination on cognition and mood”. Biological Psychology 77 (2): 113–22.doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2007.09.008.PMID 18006208. 16)Raloff, Janet (September 29, 2007).“Distracted? Tea might help your focus”.Science News 172 (13): 206.doi:10.1002/scin.2007.5591721319. “John J. Foxe of the Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research in Orangeburg, N.Y., and his colleagues recruited 16 people for tests of attentiveness on four days. Before testing, each individual drank a glass of water. On 3 days, the drink was spiked with 100 milligrams of theanine, 60 mg of caffeine, or both. The theanine dose was equivalent to that in 4 to 5 cups of tea, and the caffeine translated to about 2.5 cups of tea. In the difficult tests, participants watched a computer screen and pressed a button when a designated shape appeared on the side of a busy visual field to which an arrow had previously pointed. Participants\’ accuracy differed little between days when they got water alone or with only one additive. Accuracy improved dramatically, however, on the day that they got the theanine-caffeine combination. The attention benefit lasted throughout the 3 hours of testing.” 17)Owen, Gail N.; Parnell, Holly; De Bruin, Eveline A.; Rycroft, Jane A. (2008). “The combined effects of L-theanine and caffeine on cognitive performance and mood”. Nutritional Neuroscience 11 (4): 193–8.doi:10.1179/147683008X301513.PMID 18681988. 18)Einöther, Suzanne J.L.; Martens, Vanessa E.G.; Rycroft, Jane A.; De Bruin, Eveline A. (2010). “L-Theanine and caffeine improve task switching but not intersensory attention or subjective alertness”. Appetite 54 (2): 406–9.doi:10.1016/j.appet.2010.01.003.PMID 20079786. 19)Giesbrecht, T.; Rycroft, J.A.; Rowson, M.J.; De Bruin, E.A. (2010). “The combination of L-theanine and caffeine improves cognitive performance and increases subjective alertness”.Nutritional Neuroscience 13 (6): 283–90.doi:10.1179/147683010X12611460764840.PMID 21040626. 20)Kelly, Simon P.; Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel; Montesi, Jennifer L.; Foxe, John J. (2008). “L-theanine and caffeine in combination affect human cognition as evidenced by oscillatory alpha-band activity and attention task performance”The Journal of Nutrition 138 (8): 1572S–1577S. PMID 18641209.Theanine has been show to be neuroprotective in rat studies.21)Egashira, Nobuaki; Ishigami, Noriko; Pu, Fengling; Mishima, Kenichi; Iwasaki, Katsunori; Orito, Kensuke; Oishi, Ryozo; Fujiwara, Michihiro (2008). “Theanine prevents memory impairment induced by repeated cerebral ischemia in rats”.Phytotherapy Research 22 (1): 65–8.doi:10.1002/ptr.2261PMID 17705146.

 

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Caffeine

Caffeine is the most widely used Nootropic in the world, consumed daily by up to 80% of American adults through coffee, tea, and soft drinks. Caffeine is found in nature in seeds, leaves and fruits of plants, where it is actually a natural pesticide and a reward to pollinators such as bees.Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant 22)Nehlig A, Daval JL, Debry G (1992). “Caffeine and the central nervous system: mechanisms of action, biochemical, metabolic and psychostimulant effects”. Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. 17 (2): 139–70.doi:10.1016/0165-0173(92)90012-BPMID 1356551.. It has the ability to reduce physical fatigue and restore alertness. Caffeine produces increased wakefulness, faster and clearer flow of thought, increased focus, and better general body coordination. 23)Bolton S (1981). “Caffeine: Psychological Effects, Use and Abuse”Orthomolecular Psychiatry 10 (3): 202–211..The level of caffeine in Nootroo is equivalent to about one cup of coffee, but because it is blended with L-Theanine in the SmoothCaffeine formulation, the effects are different than having caffeine by itself. The L-Theanine removes negative side-effects associated with caffeine such as jitters, anxiety, and crashes. The combination of caffeine with L-Theanine, is better than consuming either ingredient by itself.

 

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