SmoothCaffeine™ is a special combination of caffeine and an amino acid from green tea called L-theanine. When combined, there is a synergistic effect that produces cognitive and mood benefits 1)Haskell, Kennedy, Milne, Wesnes & Scholey, Behav. Pharmacol. 16 Suppl. 1 A9, 2005.

Studies have shown that the combination enables faster simple reaction time, faster numeric working memory reaction time and improved sentence verification accuracy. It also increases alertness while at the same time decreasing tiredness and mental fatigue. 2)The effects of L-theanine, caffeine and their combination on cognition and mood.Haskell CF1, Kennedy DO, Milne AL, Wesnes KA, Scholey AB.

A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of 27 subjects on the effects of L-theanine and caffeine found that the combination improved speed and accuracy simultaneously on an attention-switching tasks and reduced the susceptibility to distracting information in a memory task. And the study concluded that “these data replicate previous results and provide further support for the existence of a synergistic relationship between effects of L-theanine and caffeine.” 3)Combined effects of L-theanine and caffeine on cognition and mood. H. PARNELL, G.N. OWEN, J.A. RYCROFT. Unilever R&D, Colworth House, Sharnbrook, Bedford, MK44 1LQ, UK doi:10.1016/j.appet.2006.07.051

Another study on young adults found that the combination of L-theanine and caffeine significantly improved accuracy during task switching and improved alertness while reducing tiredness. The results suggested that the l-theanine and caffeine combination “helps to focus attention during a demanding cognitive task.” 4)The combination of L-theanine and caffeine improves cognitive performance and increases subjective alertness. T. Giesbrecht1, J.A. Rycroft2, M.J. Rowson3, E.A. De Bruin1

L-Theanine

Theanine is an amino acid found in green teas and is well known for it’s ability to calm a person down without making them tired. 5)Kimura, Kenta; Ozeki, Makoto; Juneja, Lekh Raj; Ohira, Hideki (2007). “L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses”. Biological Psychology 74 (1): 39–45.doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2006.06.006.PMID 16930802.. Theanine has also been shown to improve cognition 6)Park, Sang-Ki; Jung, In-Chul; Lee, Won Kyung; Lee, Young Sun; Park, Hyoung Kook; Go, Hyo Jin; Kim, Kiseong; Lim, Nam Kyoo et al. (2011). “A Combination of Green Tea Extract andl-Theanine Improves Memory and Attention in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study”. Journal of Medicinal Food 14 (4): 334–43.doi:10.1089/jmf.2009.1374PMID 21303262. Theanine works best when paired with caffeine. Their synergistic relationship has been shown to boost mood and cognitive performance. 7)Park, Sang-Ki; Jung, In-Chul; Lee, Won Kyung; Lee, Young Sun; Park, Hyoung Kook; Go, Hyo Jin; Kim, Kiseong; Lim, Nam Kyoo et al. (2011). “A Combination of Green Tea Extract andl-Theanine Improves Memory and Attention in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study”. Journal of Medicinal Food 14 (4): 334–43.doi:10.1089/jmf.2009.1374PMID 213032628)Haskell, Crystal F.; Kennedy, David O.; Milne, Anthea L.; Wesnes, Keith A.; Scholey, Andrew B. (2008). “The effects of l-theanine, caffeine and their combination on cognition and mood”. Biological Psychology 77 (2): 113–22.doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2007.09.008.PMID 18006208. 9)Raloff, Janet (September 29, 2007).“Distracted? Tea might help your focus”.Science News 172 (13): 206.doi:10.1002/scin.2007.5591721319. “John J. Foxe of the Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research in Orangeburg, N.Y., and his colleagues recruited 16 people for tests of attentiveness on four days. Before testing, each individual drank a glass of water. On 3 days, the drink was spiked with 100 milligrams of theanine, 60 mg of caffeine, or both. The theanine dose was equivalent to that in 4 to 5 cups of tea, and the caffeine translated to about 2.5 cups of tea. In the difficult tests, participants watched a computer screen and pressed a button when a designated shape appeared on the side of a busy visual field to which an arrow had previously pointed. Participants\’ accuracy differed little between days when they got water alone or with only one additive. Accuracy improved dramatically, however, on the day that they got the theanine-caffeine combination. The attention benefit lasted throughout the 3 hours of testing.” 10)Owen, Gail N.; Parnell, Holly; De Bruin, Eveline A.; Rycroft, Jane A. (2008). “The combined effects of L-theanine and caffeine on cognitive performance and mood”. Nutritional Neuroscience 11 (4): 193–8.doi:10.1179/147683008X301513.PMID 18681988. 11)Einöther, Suzanne J.L.; Martens, Vanessa E.G.; Rycroft, Jane A.; De Bruin, Eveline A. (2010). “L-Theanine and caffeine improve task switching but not intersensory attention or subjective alertness”. Appetite 54 (2): 406–9.doi:10.1016/j.appet.2010.01.003.PMID 20079786. 12)Giesbrecht, T.; Rycroft, J.A.; Rowson, M.J.; De Bruin, E.A. (2010). “The combination of L-theanine and caffeine improves cognitive performance and increases subjective alertness”.Nutritional Neuroscience 13 (6): 283–90.doi:10.1179/147683010X12611460764840.PMID 21040626. 13)Kelly, Simon P.; Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel; Montesi, Jennifer L.; Foxe, John J. (2008). “L-theanine and caffeine in combination affect human cognition as evidenced by oscillatory alpha-band activity and attention task performance”The Journal of Nutrition 138 (8): 1572S–1577S. PMID 18641209.Theanine has been show to be neuroprotective in rat studies.14)Egashira, Nobuaki; Ishigami, Noriko; Pu, Fengling; Mishima, Kenichi; Iwasaki, Katsunori; Orito, Kensuke; Oishi, Ryozo; Fujiwara, Michihiro (2008). “Theanine prevents memory impairment induced by repeated cerebral ischemia in rats”.Phytotherapy Research 22 (1): 65–8.doi:10.1002/ptr.2261PMID 17705146.

Caffeine

Caffeine is the most widely used Nootropic in the world, consumed daily by up to 80% of American adults through coffee, tea, and soft drinks. Caffeine is found in nature in seeds, leaves and fruits of plants, where it is actually a natural pesticide and a reward to pollinators such as bees. Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant 15)Nehlig A, Daval JL, Debry G (1992). “Caffeine and the central nervous system: mechanisms of action, biochemical, metabolic and psychostimulant effects”. Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. 17 (2): 139–70.doi:10.1016/0165-0173(92)90012-BPMID 1356551.. It has the ability to reduce physical fatigue and restore alertness. Caffeine produces increased wakefulness, faster and clearer flow of thought, increased focus, and better general body coordination. 16)Bolton S (1981). “Caffeine: Psychological Effects, Use and Abuse”Orthomolecular Psychiatry 10 (3): 202–211..

The level of caffeine in Nootroo is equivalent to about one cup of coffee, but because it is blended with L-Theanine in the SmoothCaffeine formulation, the effects are different than having caffeine by itself.

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