Ingredients and Instructions

Nootroo comes in two different formulas, a Gold Formula and a Silver Formula. The formulas differ in the main ingredient, which in the Gold is Noopept and in the Silver is Phenylpiracetam. Both are combined in a stack with the patented form of citicoline.

The different formulas are alternated between daily; one day Gold, and the next day Silver. A single bottles contains 15 of each formula.

Noopept + Citicoline

Noopept is a dipeptide form of piracetam that has been shown to be significantly more powerful than piracetam.  Noopept has been shown in animal studies to be neuroprotective and to help to enhance and restore memory1)Ostrovskaya RU, Romanova GA, Barskov IV, Shanina EV, Gudasheva TA, Victorov IV, Voronina TA, Seredenin SB (1999). “Memory restoring and neuroprotective effects of the proline-containing dipeptide, GVS-111, in a photochemical stroke model”. Behavioural Pharmacology 10 (5): 549–553.doi:10.1097/00008877-199909000-00013.PMID 10780261. In studies with the Alzheimer’s disease model, Noopept has restored spatial memory and increased immunoreactivity to amyloid buildup. 2)Ostrovskaya RU, Gruden MA, Bobkova NA, Sewell RD, Gudasheva TA, Samokhin AN, Seredinin SB, Noppe W, Sherstnev VV, Morozova-Roche LA (2007). “The nootropic and neuroprotective proline-containing dipeptide noopept restores spatial memory and increases immunoreactivity to amyloid in an Alzheimer’s disease model”. Journal of Psychopharmacology 21 (6): 611–619.doi:10.1177/0269881106071335.  17092975.Studies also show Noopept can stimulate the expression of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The hippocampus is the region of the brain responsible for the formation of memories and consolidation of short-term memory to long-term memory. BDNF is a protein that is crucial in determining the quantity of new neurons the brain can create, as well as regulating growth, survival and, differentiation of existing neurons.3)” We showed that the nootropic drug increases expression of neurotrophic factors in the hippocampus. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that neurotrophin synthesis in the hippocampus determines cognitive function, particularly in consolidation and delayed memory retrieval. Published data show that neurotrophic factor deficiency in the hippocampus is observed not only in advanced Alzheimer’s disease, but also at the stage of mild cognitive impairment (predisease state). In light of this our findings suggest that Noopept holds much promise to prevent the development of Alzheimer’s disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Moreover, therapeutic effectiveness of Noopept should be evaluated at the initial stage of Alzheimer’s disease.” http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10517-008-0297-x

Learn More

Phenylpiracetam + Citicoline

Phenylpiracetam is a nootropic substance that has been shown to improve cognition in persons with cognitive decline from organic causes.4)Lybzikova GN, Iaglova ZhS, Kharlamova IuS. The efficacy of phenotropil in the complex treatment of epilepsyZh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. (2008) It has also been shown to improve cognition in youth with epilepsy. In rodent trials Phenylpiracetam has been shown to improve retention latency by over 185%. 5)Zvejniece L, et alInvestigation into stereoselective pharmacological activity of phenotropilBasic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol.A single dose of phenylpiracetam has been shown to cause a “significant increase in locomotor activity” and a ‘significantly enhanced memory function in a passive avoidance response test” in rodents. 6)Zvejniece L, et alInvestigation into stereoselective pharmacological activity of phenotropilBasic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. (2011) Phenylpiracetam has also been shown to be effective in increasing physical endurance, adaptation and resistance to cold. 7)“Carphedon is a phenyl derivative of nootropil and is effective in increasing physical endurance and cold resistance, and is used for amnesia treatment.” Analyst. 1999 Nov;124(11):1559-62. PMID: 10746314.

Learn More

Citicoline

Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter responsible for new memory formation in the brain and citicoline is a precursor the brain uses to synthesize new acetylcholine8)The Role of Acetylcholine in Learning and Memory9)Brain acetylcholine: control by dietary choline. Citicoline is an essential nutrient found in foods such as eggs and fatty meats. Supplementation of citicoline alone in healthy adults, in levels similar to that found in Nootroo, were found to improve attentional performance 10)Improved Attentional Performance following citicoline Administration In Healthy Adult Women. When combined with piracetam-like substances, citicoline was seen to have profound effects, above and beyond that seen with citicoline alone. Citicoline (also known as CDP-Choline) has also been shown to increase dopamine receptor densities 11)Giménez R, Raïch J, Aguilar J (November 1991).“Changes in brain striatum dopamine and acetylcholine receptors induced by chronic CDP-choline treatment of aging mice”British Journal of Pharmacology 104(3): 575–8. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.1991.tb12471.x.PMC 1908237PMID 1839138..Citicoline has been shown to prevent memory impairment resulting from poor environmental conditions 12)Teather LA, Wurtman RJ (2005). “Dietary CDP-choline supplementation prevents memory impairment caused by impoverished environmental conditions in rats”Learning & Memory 12 (1): 39–43.doi:10.1101/lm.83905PMC 548494.PMID 15647594. and that CDP-choline can help improve focus and mental energy 13)“Supplement naturally boosts ageing brain power”Sydney Morning Herald. 2008-02-25. Retrieved 2009-07-28., as well as helping with the treatment of attention deficit disorder. 14)Silveri MM, Dikan J, Ross AJ, et al. (November 2008). “Citicoline enhances frontal lobe bioenergetics as measured by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy”. NMR in Biomedicine 21 (10): 1066–75.doi:10.1002/nbm.1281PMID 18816480 Phenylpiracetam and noopept cause the brain to use more acetylcholine and the limiting factor in this reaction is choline, thus citicoline is important in helping to ensure a steady supply of choline for the brain.

Learn More

References   [ + ]

1. Ostrovskaya RU, Romanova GA, Barskov IV, Shanina EV, Gudasheva TA, Victorov IV, Voronina TA, Seredenin SB (1999). “Memory restoring and neuroprotective effects of the proline-containing dipeptide, GVS-111, in a photochemical stroke model”. Behavioural Pharmacology 10 (5): 549–553.doi:10.1097/00008877-199909000-00013.PMID 10780261
2. Ostrovskaya RU, Gruden MA, Bobkova NA, Sewell RD, Gudasheva TA, Samokhin AN, Seredinin SB, Noppe W, Sherstnev VV, Morozova-Roche LA (2007). “The nootropic and neuroprotective proline-containing dipeptide noopept restores spatial memory and increases immunoreactivity to amyloid in an Alzheimer’s disease model”. Journal of Psychopharmacology 21 (6): 611–619.doi:10.1177/0269881106071335.  17092975.
3. ” We showed that the nootropic drug increases expression of neurotrophic factors in the hippocampus. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that neurotrophin synthesis in the hippocampus determines cognitive function, particularly in consolidation and delayed memory retrieval. Published data show that neurotrophic factor deficiency in the hippocampus is observed not only in advanced Alzheimer’s disease, but also at the stage of mild cognitive impairment (predisease state). In light of this our findings suggest that Noopept holds much promise to prevent the development of Alzheimer’s disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Moreover, therapeutic effectiveness of Noopept should be evaluated at the initial stage of Alzheimer’s disease.” http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10517-008-0297-x
4. Lybzikova GN, Iaglova ZhS, Kharlamova IuS. The efficacy of phenotropil in the complex treatment of epilepsyZh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. (2008)
5. Zvejniece L, et alInvestigation into stereoselective pharmacological activity of phenotropilBasic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol.
6. Zvejniece L, et alInvestigation into stereoselective pharmacological activity of phenotropilBasic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. (2011)
7. “Carphedon is a phenyl derivative of nootropil and is effective in increasing physical endurance and cold resistance, and is used for amnesia treatment.” Analyst. 1999 Nov;124(11):1559-62. PMID: 10746314
8. The Role of Acetylcholine in Learning and Memory
9. Brain acetylcholine: control by dietary choline
10. Improved Attentional Performance following citicoline Administration In Healthy Adult Women
11. Giménez R, Raïch J, Aguilar J (November 1991).“Changes in brain striatum dopamine and acetylcholine receptors induced by chronic CDP-choline treatment of aging mice”British Journal of Pharmacology 104(3): 575–8. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.1991.tb12471.x.PMC 1908237PMID 1839138.
12. Teather LA, Wurtman RJ (2005). “Dietary CDP-choline supplementation prevents memory impairment caused by impoverished environmental conditions in rats”Learning & Memory 12 (1): 39–43.doi:10.1101/lm.83905PMC 548494.PMID 15647594.
13. “Supplement naturally boosts ageing brain power”Sydney Morning Herald. 2008-02-25. Retrieved 2009-07-28.
14. Silveri MM, Dikan J, Ross AJ, et al. (November 2008). “Citicoline enhances frontal lobe bioenergetics as measured by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy”. NMR in Biomedicine 21 (10): 1066–75.doi:10.1002/nbm.1281PMID 18816480