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To be considered a nootropic, a substance must meet all of the following characteristics:

  1. Enhance learning and memory.
  2. Increase the resistance of learned behaviors and memories to conditions which tend to disrupt them (e.g. electroconvulsive shock, hypoxia).
  3. Protect the brain from physical or chemical injury. (e.g. concussions, barbituates, scopalamine).
  4. Enhance the tonic control mechanisms of the cortex on the subcortical level mechanisms (positively effect how neurons fire)
  5. Exhibit few side effects and extremely low toxicity, while lacking the pharmacology of typical psychotropic drugs.

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